„Mysterious circle tattoos on a Peruvian mummy have been identified as containing burned plant material. The finding sheds light on a possible ancient healing practice that may have been based on similar principles to acupuncture.“


„Iceman’s 61 tattoos are organized into 19 different groups. Each group of tattoos is simply a set of horizontal or vertical lines. It is believed that the tattoos served a therapeutic or diagnostic purpose for the Iceman, because the tattoo groupings tend to cluster around the lower back and joints — places where Iceman was suffering from joint and spinal degeneration.“


“ She reported: “It depends on how much his skin has sagged…[but] most of the acupuncture points by T15 [new tattoo location] can be used to treat the symptoms associated with whipworms (abdominal pain, nausea/vomiting, diarrhea) and gallstones (abdominal pain, nausea/vomiting, etc), as well as breathing issues. These include Stomach 18 (in the 5th intercostal space), Liver 14 (in the 6th intercostal space), Gallbladder 23 (in the 7th intercostal space), and Stomach 19. Besides which, T15 is in relatively close proximity to the gallbladder itself, and where gallstone pain can be felt.”

Although Samadelli et al. (2015:5) did not directly address the possible relationships between the new tattoos and specific acupoints, they concluded: “Therefore, it cannot be ruled out that the iceman’s tattoos were indeed applied as a therapeutic treatment. In future studies, the location of the new tattoos and its relation to acupuncture points and/or meridians should be further explored and discussed.” I fully agree with this statement (!) and hopefully this post will serve as a preliminary step in that direction.“


„Ko main kai atu ko maru kai mai ka ngohengohe.“
– „Give as much as you can and everything will be fine;
Don’t be selfish, live a balanced Life.“

„Placement on the Body plays an important Role in Polynesian tattooing. There are several Elements that inherit a specific Meaning based on their Placement and even the Relation between Elements and their relative Positioning has an Influence on the Meaning of a Tattoo.

Humans are Children of Rangi (Heaven) and Papa (Earth), which were once united. Man’s Quest is to find that Union again and the Body can ideally be seen as a Link between Rangi and Papa, where the upper Part is related to material World and to Papa, similarly to most Cultures worldwide. The Placements of some Elements on the Body, such as Genealogy Tracks on the back of the Arms, suggest that the Back may be related to the Past and the Front to the Future.
Gender-wise, left is usually associated to female and right to male.
A Tattoo should then reflect Balance and Union, containing Elements relating to both Rangi and Papa; the Position of Tattoos on the Body often followed a balancing Rule, too: a Tattoo on the left Leg could be matched by another one on the right Arm and so on.“

From The Polynesian Tattoo Handbook, available here:


“No, these are not tattoos (纹身),” he said, “they are for pain in my joints.”

I am still searching for the Root of Tattooing, the Root of this ancient Tradition of inking someone’s Skin – in all Tribes it is said to have healing benefits, although those benefits vary across the World…
an interesting Article of a Traveller in China that came across therapeutical Tattoos;